Connected Cars

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Abstract

 A connected car is a car that uses different communication technologies to communicate with the driver, other cars, infrastructure on the road and the cloud. This technology ensures vehicle safety and efficiency.

TYPES OF CONNECTIVITY

i)Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) connectivity

 This is the type of connectivity between a car and other cars on the road. It communicates information about speed and position of other cars on the road. This ensures safety by avoiding accidents and traffic congestion. It also ensures positive environmental impact.

ii)Vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) connectivity

 This technology senses information about the environment and shares it ti cars and drivers through mobile devices.  The vehicle then shares the information with the pedestrians to ensure safety on the road.

iii)Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) connectivity

 This technology collects data generated by the vehicle and provides infrastructure information to the driver. This ensures safety, mobility and positive environmental impact.

iv)Vehicle to cloud (V2C) connectivity 

 This technology enables exchange of information between the car and the cloud system. This enables the driver to access information about other cars and other cloud connected systems to ensure full use of IoT.

v)Vehicle to everything (V2X) connectivity

 This connects the car to everything including roads, street lights, plains, trains etc. It enables transfer of data between these systems to ensure safety and order.

BENEFITS OF CONNECTED CARS

i)Reduced accidents 

 A driver can monitor other cars` speeds on the road. They can also monitor traffic flow ahead making it possible to take relevant actions. This minimizes accidents.

ii)Time management

 A driver can monitor traffic ahead of travelling enabling him/her to travel at the right time (when there is no traffic congestion). This saves time.

iii)Environmental benefits

 Connected cars can reduce carbon emissions by decreasing traffic congestion and increasing fuel efficiency. Using real time data from traffic signals, the car can stop or slow down before a signal increasing fuel efficiency. Connected cars use environmentally relevant data to support environmental conservation.

iv)Rise of new start-ups

 With the emergence of this technology, start-ups have emerged to provide solutions and services in this field. Tech start-ups have partnered with motor companies to provide new technologies for connected cars.

v)Emergency response

 In case of an emergency e.g. road accident, connected cars can transmit information to nearby hospitals, fire stations and fire stations. This ensures quick response which prevents more damage.

APPLICATIONS OF CONNECTED CARS TECHNOLOGY

 The concept of connected cars has applications in several industries ranging from parking, engineering, taxi business, marketing among others.

i)Smart parking

 Finding a parking space in a city is a tiring and stressful process. Connected vehicle technology provides a solution, which is smart parking.

 Smart parking uses IoT technology to transmit real time data to drivers. This data includes available parking space nearby. Using a mobile application, a driver can receive notification about a nearby parking space. There are also automated payment systems that allow a driver to pay in advance for a parking space.

 

ii)Civil Engineering and Urban Planning

 The future connected cars will require connected roads and connected infrastructure e.g. street lights and signals that can accommodate connected cars. This is the responsibility of civil engineers and urban planners.

 

iii)Disaster response

 Fire, medical and police response require information to provide effective response. This information includes nature of the emergency and clear directions to the scene of emergency. Connected cars can be able to collect and send this data quickly for a quick response.

 

iv)Mobile phone industry

 As more connected cars emerge, mobile phone companies are looking for ways to be part of the technology revolution. Mobile phone giants e.g. AT & T and Verizon are seeking partnerships with automakers to provide Wi-Fi and internet connectivity. 

 

v)Mobile app development

 The connected cars technology has impacted the mobile app development in a big way. Many developers are building apps that will connect vehicles to the world around them. Mobile apps can connect cars to the thing around them using the cloud.

 

vi)Cyber security

 Connected cars has opened new doors for cyberattacks. Hackers are hacking the connected cars systems and cyber security companies have come out to provide solutions. This has created room for more businesses for these cyber security companies.

CHALLENGES OF CONNECTED CARS

1.Cyber crimes

 Connected cars have presented many security concerns. Hackers are interfering with these systems hindering normal functioning of the systems.

2.Time

 Unlike mobile applications, connected cars take long hours of research and technical work to develop.

3.Laws and regulations

 New safety laws have come up concerning the use of connected cars. Not many companies and individuals can comply with these laws.

4.Automakers need mobile partners

 Car manufacturers and mobile providers have different objectives but they need to figure out a way to work together to fulfil connected cars’ needs. These partnerships take time to secure.

5.Technical skills

 Car makers need to be tech savvy in order to develop connected cars. Not many of them possess these skills. Outsourcing these skills might be costly.

A. Digital Mapping

 One of the first applications of geographic information technologies was that of capturing spatial data to generate maps automatically. Computer systems designed to produce digital maps represent powerful tools for business applications because it provides managers with the ability to generate spatial data in-house. In addition, remote sensing and global positioning systems (GPS) allow more accurate map production.

 Companies in the petroleum business have some of the largest digital mapping operations in the world. For example, Chevron, Shell Oil, Texaco, and Union Pacific Resources have adopted GIS and digital mapping for supporting their operational and exploratory activities (e.g., managing well locations, lease information, seismic information and other kinds of data). Similarly, Petroleum Information, a firm that provides mapped information for the oil industry, has more than two million well locations that it has captured and stored in its database. Other natural resource industries likewise use GIS for automated mapping. These include the mining industry, represented by companies like Independence Mining, and firms working with groundwater and environmental management.

B. Facilities management

GIS has been used extensively for facilities management (FM) in the public sector and private sector as well. FM provides managers with a powerful tool for supporting real-time monitoring of facilities and is routinely used for emergency management, security, and other applications. 

The key functions of GIS used in FM are the spatial visualization and database management functions. In other words, most FM applications use historical or transaction (real-time) data to manage or monitor facilities. They also rely heavily on the imaging capabilities of GIS to represent the spatial arrangement of data elements. 

The digital mapping function of GIS are often combined with FM functions to provide organizations with a system for generating, managing, and utilizing maps and other spatial data that can be used to manage an organization’s physical plant. Utilities companies make extensive use of GIS for facilities management. For example, Pennsylvania Power and Light has located more than two million utility poles using geographic information technology.

 Likewise, billboard companies like Gateway Outdoor Advertising (Somerset, NJ) maintain information about billboards, including photographs and regional demographic information, to help manage and promote each billboard.

C. Market and demographic Analysis

The primary function of market analysis is to understand the marketplace; in other words, “market analysis means using customer information to estimate the size and character of a market”.

 GIS is a powerful market analysis tool because it provides a platform for representing the spatial relationship between the components of the market; that is, the customers, suppliers, and competitors. This has become all the more important as greater competition has forced many firms to find new ways to manage their relationships with customers. 

Strategies such as target marketing, micro marketing, and relationship marketing all require that firms capture and maintain detailed information about their customers. The ultimate goal of all of these efforts is usually to bring a product or service to someone, somewhere; thus, an understanding of the geo-demographic characteristics of the firm’s customers is critical to a successful marketing strategy.

 In most cases, market analysis applications use historical or transaction (real-time) data in combination with decision modeling and support tools to analyze the organization’s marketing environment. Furthermore, GIS is a powerful tool in market analyses because it also provides a way to bring together data from multiple sources and link them based on spatial attributes. 

This often involves a process of layering different types of data on the same map projection so that the decision maker can identify and visualize how data intersect and interact. Thus, GIS is a useful and unique query tool for accessing and displaying components of a database based on the data’s spatial characteristics. 

A number of organizations have successfully applied GIS to their marketing intelligence and analysis needs. For example, fast food restaurants and other food service firms have been one of the most prominent business users of geographic technologies. Firms such as Arby’s, Burger King, The Olive Garden, and others use GIS for market analysis, franchisee selection and placement, site location analysis, and demographic profiling using Google maps. MacDonald’s has used geographic technologies for a number of years and is recognized as an industry leader in the use of geographic information technologies because of its progressive use of GIS for a wide variety of marketing and operational applications. Many firms apply GIS in market based site selection and market analyses. Val-Pak Direct Marketing Services, Inc., the largest US local cooperative direct mail advertising company, uses GIS to micro market, analyze trade areas, and manage territories. Texaco uses GIS to explore markets for sitting new Texaco stations and for enhancing existing facilities. Included in these activities are demographic analyses of neighborhoods and competitor locations to identify likely locations for new stations and the appropriate advertising and product mix for existing stores.

GIS is also used to support national promotional efforts, such as new product launches, target marketing, custom mailings, advertising, and media selection. Many car manufacturers such as the American Honda Motor Company and the American Isuzu Motor Company are also using GIS in a broad spectrum of activities. For example, these firms use GIS for both internal market analysis and assisting their dealers in analyzing their local markets.

D. Transportation and Logistics

GIS and related geographic information technologies are increasingly becoming critical tools for addressing logistics and transportation problems. Hence, GIS is used both as a platform for supporting decision modeling activities and as a tool for displaying the results of these analyses.

 A number of specific tools fit into this category of GIS. These tools include vehicle routing and navigation systems, intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), dispatch systems, production control systems, and inventory systems. Each of these technologies represent useful applications that managers can use to develop tactics to reduce waste, lower personnel and fuel costs, and provide better customer service .

 Transportation systems use tools and algorithms such as transportation network models and material flow models that come from disciplines such as operations research and production management. Thus, transportation and logistical systems rely primarily on the decision modeling function of GIS . Logistical problems are common to many industry segments; thus, many applications for GIS in addressing or supporting logistical problem solving can be cited.

 Car rental firms are increasingly including navigation systems in their rental vehicles. Both Avis and Hertz have been test marketing GPS in-vehicle guidance systems in a number of test markets . Conrail’s growing enterprise GIS uses the technology in many aspects of its business, including transportation, where dynamic segmentation tools can manage rail maintenance history by route and milepost down to each individual rail. The system can also relate customers and potential customer.

Other firms such as LEGO and the Coca Cola Co. use GIS to support transportation logistics, shipment tracking, and planning of product manufacture and delivery.

E. Design and Engineering

Computer drafting and design systems have been widely used for many years for business applications related to engineering, drafting, and design. Computer aided design (CAD) systems, for example, are routinely used by engineering firms to develop and archive architectural drawings. Like CAD systems, GIS technology can be used to design plans, layouts, and maps. 

GIS do differ, however, from traditional CAD systems. For instance, we have noted that CAD systems have rudimentary links to databases, they deal with relatively small quantities of data, they do not usually allow users to assign symbology automatically based on user defined criteria, and they have limited analytical capabilities. 

Nevertheless, we also notice that GIS are related and were, in effect, born of CAD and other information systems. GIS applications for design and engineering make use of both the imaging and the planning functions of GIS. In the majority of cases, the same GIS used for design and engineering are later adopted for FM functions as well.

 These systems are commonly used in landscape engineering, environmental restoration, commercial and residential construction and development, and a host of other design activities. Nearly all the utilities use GIS for design and engineering work, usually by coupling GIS and CAD technologies. Boston Edison, for example, uses GIS for design, planning, operations and maintenance activities; the system stores land-based service territory, facilities and circuit information, which is used to manage the company’s transmission and distribution network. South Carolina Electric and Gas uses its GIS for work order sketching, mapping, and planning for applications to perform voltage drop analysis and “what-if” modeling scenarios in responding to electrical supply problems.

 A number of telecommunication companies are now using GIS to support their expansion of optical fiber or coaxial networks, including AT and T Network Systems and Pactel. Peabody Holding Company’s Coal Services Corporation uses GIS to assist mining companies in complying with rapidly changing government regulations affecting the coal mining industry. Environmental firms like Camp Dresser and McKee (CDM) use GIS in environmental engineering and remediation projects while Pacific Power and Light has used GIS to help with managing wildlife habitat in connection with hydroelectric projects.

CONCLUSION

GIS is important for business because most business problems include significant spatial components and GIS enables decision makers to leverage their spatial data resources more effectively. 

GIS is useful for managing databases, even extremely large applications such as data warehouses, because it provides an enhanced data structure that is based on the natural organization that geography provides. Today, GIS-based data sources vary from satellite imagery used to validate the number of new houses in a retail market to the individual people-point data of the consumers living in those houses. 

Data such as these can add significant value to an organization’s database by helping to validate and extend their own proprietary resources. Although geographic information technologies have existed for several decades, much research needs to be completed, particularly research examining issues associated with the development, implementation, and use of this technology in business settings. One reason for this is that GIS have traditionally been developed, operated, and researched by people with ties, in one way or another, to geography and computer science. 

This has naturally led to a greater research focus on the technical and cartographic principles related to capturing, representing, and displaying spatial data. As GIS have spread into other areas such as biology, forestry, geology, and similar scientific disciplines, research has similarly tended to focus on technical concerns associated with each of these disciplines. 

Although the literature on GIS from these areas is rich, great potential exists for researchers from business and information systems to contribute to this stream of research, much more research is still needed to better understand issues such as how GIS should be managed in a business setting. What types of business problems it should be used for, how it compares to other types of information systems, and its overall effectiveness as a decision-making tool.